Ratnadeep Das Choudhury The dynamic frequency

Nucleosynthesis phase is the 8th phase according to the Chronology of the Universe. It’s the very next step of Lepton Epoch. Lepton Epoch was started approximately around 3 minutes after Big Bang and lasted up to 20 minutes after the big bang.

If you haven’t read my article on Lepton Epoch then, I suggest you to read that first as it will help you understand this article fully…..

During this phase, nuclei of lightest elements like Hydrogen-1(the lightest isotope of Hydrogen) started to form. This phase is also responsible for the creation of other light elements like helium isotopes: Helium-3 and Helium-4, hydrogen isotope: Deuterium and lithium isotope: Lithium-7.

Hydrogen-1 (the lightest isotope of hydrogen) Ratnadeep Das Choudhury The dynamic frequency
Hydrogen-1 (the lightest isotope of hydrogen)
Deuterium atoms were produced by the collision of protons and neutrons (one proton bound to one neutron). Then, most of the Deuterium atoms collided other protons and neutrons to produce helium and tritium which is made up of one proton and two neutrons. Similarly, Lithium-7 atoms were also created by the collision of one tritium and two deuterium nuclei.

Helium 3 (left) and Helium 4 (Right) Ratnadeep Das Choudhury The dynamic frequency
Helium 3 (left) and Helium 4 (Right)

After several years of extensive research, astronomers also found that along with all these stable nuclei, this phase created some other particles also which are unstable in nature, like heavy hydrogen isotope tritium and beryllium isotope beryllium-7. These isotopes have a nature to decay into helium-3 and lithium-7.

Lithium -7 Ratnadeep Das Choudhury The dynamic frequency
Lithium -7

All the heavier elements were created later by a process called stellar nucleosynthesis in which all the heavier elements are created inside the stars by nuclear fusion reactions.

During this time frame, the temperature of the universe dropped from 10^32 Kelvin to approximately 10^9 Kelvin and thus created a suitable environment for the creation of nuclei.

Prediction and Measurement of particles

The Nucleosynthesis theory predicts that roughly 25% of the visible mass of the Universe consists of Helium and also, 0.01% of deuterium is also present.

Also, the present measurements of Helium-3 and Helium-4 indicate good agreement with the theoretical and experimental values. But, in the case of lithium -7, there is a significant discrepancy between this theory and the experimental results of WMAP/Plank probes. The experimental values are lower than the theoretical values by the factor of 2.4-4.3 and this resulted in the revised calculations of this theory.

In my next article, I am going to write about the Photon Epoch which is the next step after the Nucleosynthesis phase. So, don't forget to check that out. Once it is uploaded, link will be available here......  

To know basics of the quantum world, astronomy and space exploration you can check out my book "Through the wormhole" on amazon kindle.

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                                                                      -Ratnadeep Das Choudhury
                                                      Founder and Writer of The Dynamic Frequency