In my articles on Heisenberg uncertainty principle, I explained that position and velocity cannot to be determined accurately at the same time. But this is not the only relation. The relation between energy and time also relies on the same principle. The formula is:-

∆E . ∆t≥h/4π
where, ∆E is change in energy
            ∆t is change in time
To explain this lets take an example,

Suppose you want to measure the energy and time of an electron which will pass through a measuring device. Since, every particle obeys uncertainty principle, so the more precisely we measure the energy of the electron, the greater uncertainty there is about the time it passed the measuring device.

What will happen if we apply this uncertainty to vacuum???

See according to the classical physics, vacuum is defined as a space there are no particle and therefore energy must be zero.

But, according to uncertainty principle for time and energy states that there is always a tiny amount of uncertainty regarding the energy of every system. This statement directly says that there is no one can never be sure about the energy of the vacuum to be zero. This means that vacuum can obtain energy for short periods of time. This is called Vacuum Fluctuation.

What is the necessity of Vacuum Fluctuation???

When scientists pondered upon this question, most of them thought that this must create a new type of particle, which must exist for a very very short period of time. Scientists named it as ‘Virtual Particles’.

These virtual particles of vacuum fluctuations are created spontaneous everywhere in the universe and usually exist for very short periods of time. Each virtual particle may be created by itself. It is always created in pair together with its antiparticle. After a short period of time, they annihilate and return the energy back to the system.
Actually what happens, when these pairs are created they actually borrow energy which they have to return the system (vacuum) when they will annihilate. We can’t observe virtual particles directly but we can feel their impacts on environment around them.

A virtual particle always doesn’t have the same property as their classical counterparts. For example a virtual electron will not have same mass as the classical electron have.

Well that’s the topic for my next blog…..So, don’t forget to subscribe to our website and follow me on social media for updates…..

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                                                                    -Ratnadeep Das Choudhury
                                                      Founder and Writer of The Dynamic Frequency