Everyone wants to know about the future? Who doesn’t? Similarly astronomers are also trying to find out what will be the future of the universe. By observing the universe, there are various reasons to show that universe may also have an end. Two mysterious things which are hypothetical theories have been found by the astronomical observations. These are dark matter and dark energy.  Dark matter is responsible for the invisible amount of mass in the universe. As the name refers ‘Dark Matter’; matter which is dark means something ‘invisible’ or simply we can say ‘invisible matter’. 

                               Dark matter supports the gravitational force. Whereas, dark energy is an invisible form of energy which is believed to be present in the vacuum of the space. It supports he expansion of the universe. But how they are related to the end of the universe? Let’s find out.

Theories about the end of the universe:-

  • Big Crunch:-

                         In big crunch the whole universe will expand to a certain limit. After that it will begin to collapse due to gravity. Everything will begin to collide with other bodies and ultimately we will reach to that point from where we started. It will again become a infinitely dense ball of matter. It is believed that it is the effect of the dark matter

  • Big Freeze:-
                            In big freeze (also called Heat Death) the whole universe will continue to expand. The dark energy will isolate each galaxy from other galaxies. As a result, gradually there will be shortage of gases to become a star. Thus, the stars in the galaxies will be the last stars. When these stars will die the bright age of the universe will finish up and the zombie age of universe will start. This will be the zombie age because only black holes (which are the remains of dead huge stars) will remain. Gradually, these black holes will join with each other to form a big black hole. This single black hole will continue to collect material from its surrounding. But gradually it will start to evaporate due to hawking radiation. And at last it will become so small to recognise. The expansion of universe is believed as the effect of dark energy and since the recent discovery of Cosmic Microwave background shows that 68.3% of the universe is made up of dark energy, so it is believed that universe may end up  with big freeze. But we will get the real answer by solving the dark energy problem.

Universe is continuously expanding
Universe is continuously expanding

  • Big Rip:-
                          In big rip the acceleration of the expansion of the universe will increase so rapidly that everything will break up into smaller and smaller parts even spacetime also break up into smaller and smaller parts. And ultimately when the subatomic particles will scatter from each other the matter building block will be destroyed up and then nothing will leave.

  • Big bounce:-
                         In big bounce, the universe will collapse in a big crunch after reaching at certain limit and again burst up with big bang. This cycle will continue again and again.
  • Phase Transition:-
                           Phase transition or phase change in the phase (forms) of matter. But in astronomy, phase means the form of the universe. It can be present phase or phase in other time. Phase transition can occur any time even in the next second but we will not able to detect as it will move with the speed of light. At first a small bubble of new universe will form and destroy everything which touches its boundary. Then a new universe will form within this bubble. It form when it get a suitable condition just like water freezes when its temperature is below 0 degree. It may happen because it happened earlier. When the big bang occurred, that universe was not like ours. After a fraction of second after the big bang a small bubble of our universe occurred and changed everything. So, there is always a possibility of phase transition.

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